In the 1994 Restoration Plan, the Trustee Council outlined an ecosystem approach to restoration. Even before the Plan was final, however, they began investing funds in an organized effort to better understand the marine ecosystem. This approach has provided and continues to provide more information on fish, marine birds, and mammals than ever anticipated. These projects benefit commercial and sport fisheries, aquaculture, subsistence, recreation, and tourism. Most prominent among them are three ecosystem-scale projects known primarily by their acronyms, SEA, APEX, NVP, and the current suite of projects focusing on herring and their role in the ecosystem.